Selamat kembali ke sekolah. Marilah mencapai kecemerlangan pada musim persekolahan yang baru ini.

Colour of Our Blood

Hemoglobin is the principal determinant of the color of blood in vertebrates. Each molecule has four heme groups, and their interaction with various molecules alters the exact color.

In vertebrates and other hemoglobin-using creatures, arterial blood and capillary blood are bright red, as oxygen imparts a strong red color to the heme group. Deoxygenated blood is a darker shade of red; this is present in veins, and can be seen during blood donation and when venous blood samples are taken. Blood in carbon monoxide poisoning is bright red, because carbon monoxide causes the formation of carboxyhemoglobin. In cyanide poisoning, the body cannot utilize oxygen, so the venous blood remains oxygenated, increasing the redness.

While hemoglobin-containing blood is never blue, there are several conditions and diseases wherein the color of the heme groups make the skin appear blue. If the heme is oxidized, methaemoglobin, which is more brownish and cannot transport oxygen, is formed. In the rare condition sulfhemoglobinemia, arterial hemoglobin is partially oxygenated, and appears dark red with a bluish hue (cyanosis). Veins in the skin appear blue for a variety of reasons only weakly dependent on the color of the blood. Light scattering in the skin, and the visual processing of color play roles as well.

Methemoglobin is a form of the oxygen-carrying protein hemoglobin (British English: haemoglobin), in which the iron in the heme group is in the Fe3+ state, not the Fe2+ of normal hemoglobin. Methemoglobin cannot carry oxygen. It is a bluish chocolate-brown in color. The NADH-dependent enzyme methemoglobin reductase (diaphorase I) is responsible for converting methemoglobin back to hemoglobin. Normally one to two percent of people's hemoglobin is methemoglobin; a higher percentage than this can be genetic or caused by exposure to various chemicals and depending on the level can cause health problems known as Methemoglobinemia.

Sulfhemoglobinemia is a rare condition in which there is excess sulfhemoglobin (SulfHb) in the blood. The pigment is a greenish derivative of hemoglobin which cannot be converted back to normal, functional hemoglobin. It causes cyanosis even at low blood levels. It is a rare blood condition that occurs when a sulfur atom is incorporated into the hemoglobin molecule. When hydrogen sulfide (H2S) (or sulfide ions) and ferric ions combine in the blood, the blood is incapable of carrying oxygen.

On June 11, 2007, Canadian anesthesiologists Dr. Stephan Schwarz, Dr. Giuseppe Del Vicario, and Dr. Alana Flexman presented an unusual case in The Lancet. A 42-year-old male patient was brought into Vancouver's St. Paul's Hospital after falling asleep in a sitting position. When doctors drew the man's blood during surgery to relieve pressure from his legs, the blood was green. A sample of the blood was immediately sent to a lab. In this case, sulfhemoglobinaemia was possibly caused by the patient taking higher-than-prescribed doses of sumatriptan.


Tiada ulasan: